The most important thing you need in any Linux system is a text editor. All configurations are controlled by text files in Linux, and so without a text editor, you cannot get anything to work.
While there is a lot of opinion out there on what editor you should choose, I recommend vim. While many people say that vim is only for hard-core administrators, I recommend it because it is universally available on all systems. Its predecessor (vi) even comes installed with all versions of Linux.
Many people object to vim because it is difficult to learn. There are no menus or gui hints, and all the commands are hotkey based. For many people (like me) that makes it incredibly attractive, but for new users or people migrating from the hand-holding world of Windows, this can be a challenge. Fortunately, you only have to know a couple of commands to put vim (or vi) to work for you.
By default, only vi comes with your Linux operating system. So, you’ll need to install vim with the following command:
sudo apt-get install vim
To start vim, you need only type vim followed by the file you want to edit. In this example, we are going to create a new file called helloworld.txt:
The interface has several key parts, which are shown below. One important difference between vim and other editors is the tilde ( ~ ) that shows you where the file ends. In our example, this file is empty, and so you see a series of ~ characters beneath the cursor, which visually indicate where the file ends. Also, the file’s various status indicators are shown at the bottom of the window. They are (from left to right) the file name, a new file indicator, the cursor position (row, column) and the percentage of the file that is currently viewable.
File Editing Basics
There are really only three commands you need to edit files in vim: i, w, and q.
The ‘i’ command sets the editor into “Insert Mode,” which allows you to insert text into the file. Use this command to change files or add information to files. Note: it will only insert text, and will not overwrite text. So, to delete text while in insert mode, you’ll need to use the backspace or delete key.
Once you are done adding / editing text, press the escape key (ESC) to exit insert mode.
Saving the File and Exiting Vim
File operations are done in the command console, which you can access by typing a colon ( : ). Saving a file (writing a file to disk) is accomplished by typing :w and pressing enter. This opens the file console, and issues the write command.
Quitting the file is done much the same way. Use the :q command to quit the program and exit to the shell.
As a shortcut to write changes and exit vim, you can combine the commands into :wq.
Vim is unbelievably powerful. Most users only use a fraction of what it is capable of doing. It has a built in macro recording feature, code and syntax highlighting among other powerful features.
There are two features that I highly recommend you use when working with vim, and one that should be turned off.
- Color scheme. Changing the color scheme makes files easy to see and work with.
- Auto Indent. This automatically indents files to make them easier to format and read. For example, if you make one line indented for formatting reasons, autoindent will automatically set the next line at the same indent depth, which relieves you from having to tab over for each line.
- Syntax highlighting. This changes the color of reserved words for various programming languages and system files so that you can easily see what words the system recognizes.
You can manually turn these on using the following commands:
:colorscheme blue :set autoindent :syntax on
- Word Wrap.
Configuration files frequently get longer than the screen can display. When dealing with human readable text, like a letter, word wrap moves the line of text down to the next line and neatly formats it. However, in the computer world (especially when dealing with programming, scripting, or configuration files) word wrap can make those files difficult to read and decypher. Subsequently, I recommend you turn word wrap off to leave commands in-tact and on a single line when they are supposed to be on a single line. Use this command to turn word wrap off:
Setting up Auto Configuration with the .vimrc File.
No one wants to type 5 commands to setup vim every time they start the program. Fortunately, there is a simple way that you can configure vim to set itself up every time you start the program. The .vimrc file is like the autoexec.bat file in Windows, except instead of running whenever the system is started, it is run whenever the vim program is started. Simply create this file in your home directory, and put the commands we listed above in it, save the file, and vim will configure itself just the way you want it whenever it is started up:
- At the command prompt, type: vim ~/.vimrc, and press enter to edit the .vimrc file in your home directory.
- Add in the commands we listed above.
- Save the file, and exit vim (use the :wq command).
Here is what my .vimrc file looks like: